Page d'accueil World War II Map by Map
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Thanks for the share.
08 May 2020 (08:07)
I will be returning this book for a refund. Blatantly slanted in favor of the
Axis. Although the end results are factual there is too much emphasis placed on the Axis cause. Why so many photos of Hitler and his henchmen? Not one photo of General Eisenhower. If not for the genius of "Ike", you who put this book together would all be wearing Nazi arm bands or the Rising Sun. Total garbage. I will NOT be renewing my subscription to the Smithsonian mag.
Axis. Although the end results are factual there is too much emphasis placed on the Axis cause. Why so many photos of Hitler and his henchmen? Not one photo of General Eisenhower. If not for the genius of "Ike", you who put this book together would all be wearing Nazi arm bands or the Rising Sun. Total garbage. I will NOT be renewing my subscription to the Smithsonian mag.
28 July 2020 (21:30)
Perhaps the explanation is that if it were not for the Red Army, despite Ike you would be having a bracelet like the one you indicate. Sad comment of yours.
08 September 2021 (05:32)
S M I T H S O N I A N WORLD WAR II MAP BY MAP FOREWORD BY PETER SNOW 10 THE SLIDE TO WAR 34 GERMANY TRIUMPHANT 1939–1941 1918–1939 12 The seeds of war 24 The Spanish Civil War 36 War in Europe 56 Power struggles in Africa 14 The legacy of World War I 26 The Sino-Japanese War 38 Poland destroyed 58 The Battle of Britain 16 The League of Nations 28 Germany and Italy expand 40 The phony war 60 The Blitz 18 Europe of the dictators 30 Kristallnacht 42 Battle of the River Plate 62 Britain at bay 20 Hitler and Nazi Germany 32 Countdown in Europe 44 The Winter War in Finland 64 The U-boat war begins 22 China in turmoil 46 The battle for Norway 66 Sinking of the Bismarck 48 The German offensive in the west 68 The end of US neutrality 50 Blitzkrieg 70 Lend-Lease 52 Evacuating Dunkirk 72 The Mediterranean and Middle East 54 The fall of France 74 Italy’s campaigns in Africa CONTENTS DK LONDON Senior Editor Hugo Wilkinson Project Editors Shashwati Tia Sarkar, Miezan van Zyl Editor Polly Boyd US Editors Megan Douglass, Lori Hand Lead Senior Art Editor Duncan Turner Senior Art Editor Sharon Spencer Project Art Editor Steve Woosnam-Savage Cartographer Ed Merritt Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Editorial Assistant Michael Clark Jacket Designer Surabhi Wadhwa Project Assistant Briony Corbett Jacket Editor Emma Dawson Managing Editor Angeles Gavira Guerrero Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Producer (Pre-production) Rob Dunn Senior Producer Meskerem Berhane Managing Art Editor Michael Duffy Art Director Karen Self Design Director Phil Ormerod 102 THE WIDENING WAR 1942 94 The Siege of Leningrad 104 America and Japan go to war 132 96 German advance on Moscow 106 Japanese ambitions 134 The Holocaust Germany pushes south 98 Massacres in the east 108 Japan goes to war 136 The Warsaw ghetto 82 The Middle East and eastern Mediterranean 100 The relief of Moscow 84 76 Rommel enters the des; ert war 78 The Greco-Italian War 80 The new order in Europe 110 Pearl Harbor 138 Raids and subversions 112 Japanese advances 140 Arctic convoys War in the Mediterranean 114 America at war 142 Rommel’s final advance 86 The Siege of Malta 116 Japan invades the Philippines 144 Second Battle of El Alamein 88 Germany’s war with the USSR 118 Surrender at Singapore 146 Operation Torch 90 Operation Barbarossa 92 Germany and USSR at home 120 Japan takes Burma 148 German advance to Stalingrad 122 India in World War II 124 150 Stalingrad under siege Japanese setbacks 152 126 The Battle of Midway Soviet victory at Stalingrad 154 Prisoners of war 128 Guadalcanal 130 War in Europe and Africa DK INDIA Senior Editor Rupa Rao Assistant Editors Aashirwad Jain, Sonali Jindal Picture Researchers Akash Jain, Surya Sankash Sarangi Picture Research Manager Taiyaba Khatoon Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh Cartographers Ashutosh Ranjan Bharti, Swati Handoo, Animesh Kumar Pathak Cartography Manager Suresh Kumar Lead Senior Art Editor Vaibhav Rastogi Senior Art Editor Mahua Mandal Project Art Editors Sanjay Chauhan, Anjali Sachar Art Editors Rabia Ahmad, Mridushmita Bose, Debjyoti Mukherjee, Sonali Rawat Sharma Managing Art Editor Sudakshina Basu Senior Jackets Designer Suhita Dharamjit Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Vishal Bhatia, Jagtar Singh Production Manager Pankaj Sharma COBALT ID Designer Darren Bland Art Director Paul Reid Editorial Director Marek Walisiewicz CONTRIBUTORS FOREWORD Peter Snow CBE CONSULTANT Richard Overy, Professor of History, Exeter University WRITERS Simon Adams, Tony Allan, Kay Celtel, R.G. Grant, Jeremy Harwood, Philip Parker, Christopher Westhorp 156 TURNING THE TIDE 1943–1944 158 German defiance 178 160 Victory in the desert 180 The Soviets sweep forward 200 Battles at Germany’s gate 182 Operation Bagration 202 Greece and Yugoslavia 184 The Warsaw uprising 204 War against Japan 186 The D-Day landings 206 Operation Cartwheel 188 Omaha Beach 208 US amphibious warfare 190 The Battle of Normandy 210 Island-hopping in the Pacific 192 V-weapons 212 Battle for the Marianas 162 Summit conferences 164 Sicily and Italy invaded 166 From Anzio to the Gothic Line 168 Defeat of the U-boats 170 Code-breaking 172 Bombing by day and night The Battle of Kursk 198 Operation Market Garden 174 Speer and the war industry 194 The breakout 214 The Battle of Leyte Gulf 176 Resistance in Europe 196 The plot to kill Hitler 216 Kamikaze tactics 218 The fightback in Burma 220 China and Japan at war 222 Japanese rule in east Asia First American Edition, 2019 Published in the United States by DK Publishing, 1450 Broadway, Suite 801, New York, NY 10018 Copyright © 2019 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC 19 20 21 22 23 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001-311581-Sep/2019 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 1450 Broadway, Suite 801, New York, NY 10018 SpecialSales@dk.com A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-4654-8179-5 Printed and bound in Malaysia A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com CURATOR Dr. F. Robert van der Linden, Chairman, Aeronautics Department, National Air and Space Museum SMITHSONIAN ENTERPRISES Product Development Manager Kealy Gordon Editorial Director Ellen Nanney Vice President, Consumer Brigid Ferraro and Education Products Senior Vice President, Consumer Carol LeBlanc and Education Products 224 ENDGAME AND AFTERMATH 226 Allied victory in Europe 228 Battle of the Bulge 230 Yalta and Potsdam 232 Crossing the Rhine 234 Germany loses the air war 236 The bombing of Dresden 238 The final Soviet attack 240 Final struggles in Italy 242 The fall of Berlin 1944–1955 252 The bombing of Japan 254 The Battle of Okinawa 256 Manhattan Project 258 Hiroshima and Nagasaki 260 Peace in the Pacific 262 The aftermath of war 264 The Iron Curtain 266 The Chinese Civil War 244 VE Day 268 Decolonization of Asia 246 Defeat of Japan 270 The creation of Israel 248 Retaking the Philippines 272 The price of war 250 Iwo Jima 274 Remembrance SMITHSONIAN Established in 1846, the Smithsonian—the world’s largest museum and research complex—includes 19 museums and galleries and the National Zoological Park. The total number of artifacts, works of art, and specimens in the Smithsonian’s collections is estimated at 154 million, the bulk of which is contained in the National Museum of Natural History, which holds more than 126 million specimens and objects. The Smithsonian is a renowned research center, dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and natural history. 276 Glossary 278 Index 286 Acknowledgments FOREWORD This is the most compelling work of military geography I’ve ever seen. It’s a testament to the titanic scale of the conflict of 1939–1945, which dwarfs all others in world history. The ferocity of World War II— the level of its violence and the cost in human life—almost defies description: up to 80 million deaths; some 20 million on the battlefield; and around three times more than that among civilians caught up in the firestorm of bombing and all-embracing warfare on land, sea, and air. What these maps explain in intricate detail is the mobility and speed with which mechanized armies could sweep across vast areas, and with which warships and aircraft could inflict destruction at ranges never before dreamed of. No earlier conflict has demanded such comprehensive mapping. No other conflict has been as challenging to the cartographer. Each of the pivotal moments of the war is marked by more movement and the exercise of more industrial might than in any previous war. It is maps such as these that can help us to envisage the scope, the size, and the sheer pace of Hitler’s blitzkrieg, which crushed the Low Countries and France in the spring of 1940. Other instances of mass mobility are illuminated for us—the see-sawing of the rival armies in North Africa in 1940–1943, the great leap across the Mediterranean by Montgomery’s and Patton’s armies from North Africa to Sicily and Italy, the lightning Nazi assault on Stalin’s Soviet Union, and ▽ Contemporary map of action in Normandy This German situation map shows Axis and Allied troop movements in 1944. Following the Allied counterinvasion of France on D-Day, the two sides battled fiercely for control of territory in northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands in what was to be one of the pivotal episodes of the war in Europe (see pp.190–191). the astonishing turnaround after Stalingrad in 1942–1943. Perhaps most dramatically of all, we can see the greatest seaborne invasion of all time on D-Day in June 1944. This book also reminds us that the war enveloped Asia. It describes the great naval battles of the Pacific that followed Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. This was, in President Roosevelt’s words, the “date which will live in infamy,” propelling the US into the war. More than anything, it was the commitment of America’s industrial might on the side of the Allies that spelled the end for Germany, Italy, and Japan. The set of maps describing the desperately hard-fought and costly series of battles that finally consumed Japan’s short-lived Pacific empire is an essential guide to the understanding of the massive task that confronted the US forces. This comprehensive picture of World War II is enhanced by further maps and features that illustrate the state of the world before and after the fighting, and the wider social, political, and economic aspects of the conflict. We also get a glimpse of the kind of mapping that was available to military commanders at the time. I’ve long been fascinated by the way good maps have helped me and other commentators explain the ups and downs of warfare. This book is right at the forefront of that great enterprise. PETER SNOW, 2019 THE SLIDE TO WAR 1918–1939 MOUNTING TENSIONS AFTER WORLD WAR I LED TO INSTABILITY AND THE RISE OF EXTREMIST NATIONALISM IN EUROPE, WHILE CLASHES IN ASIA GATHERED MOMENTUM. A NEW GLOBAL WAR DREW NEAR. 12 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 THE SEEDS OF WAR The world of the 1920s and 1930s was scarred by ideological divisions, social conflicts, and economic collapse. Aggressive militarists intent on conquest rose to power in major states, notably Germany and Japan, and the clumsy efforts of liberal democracies to preserve the peace only precipitated a headlong rush to war. △ Nationalist propaganda This Spanish Civil War poster promotes the Nationalist cause. Fought between Republicans and Nationalists, the war epitomized the right–left divide that polarized Europe in the 1930s. It is a sad irony that the origins of World War II can be directly traced back to World War I, which was known as “the war to end war.” This immensely destructive conflict bred a widespread popular longing for peace, but also left a heritage of grievance, insecurity, and instability. Germany in particular found it hard to come to terms with defeat, and the Versailles peace treaty, devised by the victorious powers in 1919, was bitterly resented by most Germans, who felt it was too punitive. The German Weimar Republic, the government founded in 1919, was weak, facing hyperinflation and armed revolts from both the right and the left. From peace to rearmament During the 1920s, there was encouraging evidence of recovery, with a marked improvement in international affairs. The League of Nations, set up in 1920 ▷ Japanese firepower The Type 92 heavy machine gun was one of the weapons adopted by Japan as it pursued military expansion in the 1930s. BETWEEN THE WARS In Europe, a period of turmoil after the end of World War I was followed by relative stability in the mid-1920s. Then the onset of the Great Depression in 1929 propelled Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. After that, German aggression led to crisis after crisis, until the fateful invasion of Poland that started World War II in Europe in September 1939. The Japanese invasion of China in 1937 had already led to war in Asia. Nov 1918 Armistice ends World War I; Germany becomes a republic Jun 1919 Versailles Treaty signed under the terms of the peace treaty, pursued ambitious plans for collective security and disarmament, although its authority was lessened by the refusal of the US to take part. After a crisis over enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles in 1923, Germany and France started making moves toward normalizing relations, but true stability proved elusive. The transformation of the former Russian Empire into the Soviet Union—a Communist state theoretically committed to world revolution—constituted a new unsettling factor in international politics. In Italy, also fatally destabilized by World War I, Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini took power. In China, Nationalists struggled to uphold a central government against Communists and warlords. Hopes for a return to “normalcy” disappeared definitively with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, after the Wall Street Crash. This crushing blow to the global economy had a devastating impact on a world riven by domestic and international tensions. As trade collapsed, major powers were tempted to seek economic security through political control of territory and resources. Faced with mass unemployment and falling living standards, many countries abandoned liberalism for authoritarian government. In Germany, the impact of the Depression turned Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party from a marginal extremist movement into a major Nov 1920 League of Nations officially begins Oct 1922 Mussolini heads government in Italy Jan 1923 Failed Nazi Munich putsch EUROPE ASIA AMERICA 1918 1920 1922 Dec 1922 Soviet Union founded 1924 Jan 1923 French occupation of the Ruhr to enforce Versailles Treaty 1926 Mar 1925 Death of Chinese leader Sun-Yat Sen T H E S E E D S O F WA R ◁ Unopposed conquest Occupying Czechoslovakia without a fight, the German army parades through the streets of Prague before a sullen crowd in spring 1939. political force. Marshaling German resentment against the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler linked solving Germany’s economic problems to a reassertion of German military power. Within two years of Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933, the country had embarked on open, fullscale rearmament. Meanwhile, in East Asia, an increasingly militarist Japan was tempted by Chinese weakness into encroachments that culminated in a full-scale invasion in 1937. Mussolini’s Italy committed its own smaller-scale act of aggression with an invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. Revealed as impotent to prevent such breaches of world peace, the League of Nations faded into insignificance. The lead-up to war Britain and France, both liberal democracies, struggled to find an adequate response to the rise of naked aggression. They failed to take action when Hitler rearmed in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. When civil war broke out in Spain in 1936, and Germany and Italy intervened on the side of right-wing rebels, the British and French stayed neutral, refusing to align with the ideologically opposed Soviet Union, which supported the Spanish government. Belatedly, the democracies began to rearm, but they were desperate to avoid war with Germany, fearful of the possibly immediate effect of aerial bombardment. British prime minister Neville Chamberlain decided on a policy of appeasement, seeking to satisfy German grievances. In 1938, Hitler was allowed to absorb Austria and take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. However, this was not enough for the Nazi leader. Instead, he actively desired war and conquest, making plans to reverse the verdict of World War I and establish German domination in Europe. After Germany occupied Prague in March 1939, the British government decided to oppose any further Nazi expansionism. When Britain and France promised to assist Poland, Hitler’s next target, a countdown to war began. Britain and France were still reluctant to ally with the Soviet Union. As they dallied, the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin opted for a deal with Hitler, clearing the way for a German attack on Poland and the start of World War II. “War is to man what motherhood is to woman … I do not believe in perpetual peace.” B E N I T O M U S S O L I N I , I TA L I A N D I C TAT O R , 1 9 3 9 1927 Civil war in China between Communists and Nationalists 1928 Oct 1929 Crash on Wall Street heralds Great Depression Nov 1932 F. D. Roosevelt wins US presidential election 1930 1930 Mass unemployment in Germany; rise of Nazi support Aug 1934 Hitler becomes “Führer” after death of President Hindenburg 1932 Sep 1931 Japanese seize city of Shenyang, then invade rest of Manchuria Jan 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany ▷ The face of Fascism Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini set the model for the uniformed dictators who dominated Europe between the wars. Oct 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia 1934 Aug 1935 US Neutrality Act forbids involvement in foreign wars Mar 1936 Hitler militarizes Rhineland Nov 1936 Germany and Japan sign AntiComintern Pact 1936 Jul 1936 Spanish Civil War begins Mar 1938 Anschluss: Austria absorbed into German Reich Mar 1939 German troops occupy Prague; Britain and France guarantee Poland against aggression 1938 Apr 1937 Germans and Italians bomb civilians in Guernica Jul 1937 Japanese invade China, starting SinoJapanese War Sep 1939 German troops invade Poland 1940 Sep 1938 Munich Agreement hands Sudetenland to Germany Aug 1939 Nazi–Soviet Pact secretly agrees partition of Poland 13 ◁ War children This poster from 1917 asks “Have you room in your hearts for us?,” appealing on behalf of the many thousands of French children left fatherless by World War I. The scale of the casualties had far-reaching implications in the combatants’ home countries. SW RW AY 1920 Estonia is liberated from Russia following a short war of independence. 1921 After a Russian defeat outside Warsaw, Poland and Russia reach agreement on their common border. 1916 Irish Republicans launch the Easter Rising in Dublin against British rule. LUXEMBOURG a Se R A BI RO M A N I A 1920–1922 Greeks occupy Eastern Thrace. BULGARIA a C ED O NI N ER E S T AC R A NORTHERN EPIRUS 1925 Greece and Bulgaria are in conflict over Macedonia. WESTERN THRACE Smyrna GREECE D EL AN Ruhr under armed occupation Demilitarized Rhineland A MONTENEGRO ALB ANIA A N IA SS A N 1918 Bessarabia is added to Romania. BOSNIAHERZEGOVINA Se R , ic T LV BIA at At the end of the war, Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands, and Germany became a republic. The Treaty of Versailles in 1919 imposed punitive terms on Germany. Land was lost to Denmark, Belgium, France, and Poland; its empire was removed, its armed forces reduced, and its fleet confiscated. Germany was also made to pay war reparations. Areas under League of Nations High Commissioners GD SY A ER ri THE BREAKUP OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 1918–1923 German border, 1918 IA S TS OA CR S , ES N Annexed by Turkey, 1921 Land restored to Turkey after Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 D RU T H E N O AN M O D FS CROATIA S L ER O B VE A Turkey after Treaty of Sèvres d KIN I AT Following an armistice with Ottoman Turkey in October 1918, the victorious Allies sought to partition the country in the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. Turkish Nationalists under Mustafa Kemal rejected the treaty and gradually expelled the occupying Greek, Armenian, and French armies by 1922. The Ottoman sultanate was abolished and the new republic recognized by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which approved Turkey’s new borders. N Teschen KIA 1920 A peace treaty is signed between Russia and Lithuania. UKRAINE A S L O VA K I A M A 4 L HUNG A RY SLOVE NIA 1920 The Treaty of Trianon settles new borders for Hungary. 1918 The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes is created from the Corsica Austro-Hungarian empire and Serbia; it is renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. 1919–1923 O Sopron AL THE NEW TURKEY P S L O VA CARINTHIA Plebiscites held N CHO AUST R I A LY I CZE SWITZERLAND A 5 P A FRANCE IT S UPPER SILESIA D Areas of dispute 1920 Teschen is partitioned Brest-Litovsk between Poland and Czechoslovakia. BE The treaties that ended the war in Europe attempted to resolve many outstanding territorial disputes. Most involved returning lands lost in previous wars or addressing the issues of ethnic groups living on the “wrong” side of a new border. Plebiscites—public referendums— were called to allow local people the final say on their future government. ALSACELORRAINE IN 1919–1925 POLISH CORRIDOR BOHEMIA 1919 The Treaty of St.-Germain sets new borders for Austria. WHITE RUSSIA Marienwerder G ER M AN Y RH 6 EUROPE IN DISPUTE Wilno Allenstein 1919 The former German city of Danzig becomes a Free City under the League of Nations. Eupen H Danzig EAST PRUSSIA A 1919 Alsace-Lorraine returns to France after 48 years of German rule. LIT MEMEL TERRITORY SCHLESWIGHOLSTEIN RUHR BELGIUM al A 1919 Rhineland is demilitarized until 1936. ti 1921 Russia recognizes Latvian independence under the Treaty of Riga. c B NETHERLANDS LATVIA NI UNITED KINGDOM ESTONIA Pskov DENMARK 1919 Saarland is placed under League of Nations mandate until reunited with Germany by plebiscite in 1935. Petrograd M Dublin 1923–1925 French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr after Germany fails to pay reparations. 1920 Poland annexes Wilno from Lithuania, which it gains by plebiscite in 1922. North Sea ND Åland Is. UA IRISH FREE STATE FI A NL EA TH N O 1920 Russia recognizes Finnish independence in the Treaty of Tartu. 1922 Ireland is divided between a mainly Catholic Free State and a mainly Protestant six-county entity in the north. NORTHERN IRELAND EN ED Dodecanese Is. 1919 Greece occupies Smyrna, leading to war with Turkey until 1922. Crete T H E L EG AC Y O F WO R L D WA R I AFTER THE WAR KEY The borders of many European countries were redrawn after World War I, as empires collapsed and new countries were born. This new settlement was often violent, and left its own damaging legacy. National borders, 1923 TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 1920 1930 1925 A 1915 I 1 END OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE 1917–1921 R U S S The February Revolution of 1917 that overthrew the Romanov Czar and the October Revolution that ended the provisional government led to a Communist takeover of Russia. The Bolshevik regime arranged a cease-fire with Germany in December 1917, and in March 1918 signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, renouncing its claims on Finland, the Baltic provinces, Poland, and Ukraine. 1918 Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, giving up its claims on lands west of the Brest-Litovsk line. Russian border, December 1917 Brest-Litovsk treaty line 2 Rostov Areas temporarily autonomous or independent THE BREAKUP OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE 1918–1920 The Hapsburg Empire’s collapse led to three new states: Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Former Austrian territory was added to Poland, Romania, and what later became Yugoslavia. Austria had to pay reparations, was forbidden to unite with Germany, and saw its army restricted. The old Kingdom of Hungary lost two-thirds of its land and many ethnic Hungarians to Romania and elsewhere. Austria-Hungary border, 1914 AZ C a u c a s u s GEORGIA 1915–1922 Around 1.5 million Turkish Armenians are killed by Turkish Nationalists. Ankara TU RKISH AR MEN IA ia tol Ana 1923 Ankara becomes new capital of Republican Turkey. 3 BA IJ AN The peace treaties that settled the future of Europe after 1919 were the result of numerous compromises between the “Big Four”: the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and Italy. American president Woodrow Wilson wanted to forge a liberal peace settlement based on national selfdetermination, while French prime minister Georges Clemenceau wanted above all to ensure the future security of his country and make Germany pay for the war—a view that was shared by David Lloyd George, prime minister of Britain. The resulting treaties had the overall effect of pleasing no one, and left the people and governments of many countries profoundly dissatisfied with the outcome. Lake Van P S ER IA TU RKIS H K U R D IS TA N EMERGING STATES “My home policy: I wage war. My foreign policy: I wage war. All the time I wage war.” 1918–1922 WRITING THE PEACE The victorious Allied politicians and diplomats met in Paris in 1919 to draw up a series of treaties with the defeated Central Powers, each one named after the palaces, chateaux, and towns to the west of Paris where they were signed. The main treaty was signed with Germany at Versailles in June 1919, followed by St.-Germainen-Laye with Austria in September 1919, Neuilly-sur-Seine with Bulgaria in November 1919, Trianon with Hungary in June 1920, and finally the abortive Sèvres treaty with Turkey in August 1920. New states created Signing the Treaty of Versailles Jerusalem Territorial disputes continued to divide nations, notably in Eastern Europe, while actual fighting continued in Turkey until 1922. Many of the new states were crudely carved out of Austro-Hungary and the other old empires, while defeated Germany emerged as a shrunken republic and imperial Russia, excluded from the peace talks, became the world’s first Communist state. While some problems were addressed by the peace treaties, the legacy of the war had profound social, economic, and political consequences across Europe and Asia, and would become one of the defining causes of a new world war within 20 years. G E O R G E S C L E M E N C E A U , 1918 The collapse of the Ottoman, German, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian empires at the end of the war led to the formation of new states in central Europe: Estonia; Finland; Austria; Czechoslovakia; Poland; Hungary; Lithuania; Latvia; and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. They were joined by the Irish Free State, which broke free from Britain in 1922 after a brutal civil war. Cypru s The end of war in Europe in 1918 saw the collapse of four major empires. The map of the continent needed to be redrawn, and the future home of millions of people decided. As new states emerged and old conflicts were slowly resolved, the legacy of the war continued to be felt across Europe for many years. NIA ME AR a Black Se E Y R K U T ER THE LEGACY OF WORLD WAR I 15 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 2 MEMBERSHIP OF THE LEAGUE 1920–1939 1932 Former Ottoman Iraq becomes the first (British) mandate to achieve independence. The League had 42 founding members, and by 1934 its membership stood at 58. The US, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Mongolia, Bhutan, and Nepal never joined. The USSR belonged only in 1934–1939, while Japan and Germany left in 1933, Italy in 1937, and Spain in 1939. As colonies and mandates were excluded from membership, most of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific went unrepresented in the League. 1923 France acquires a mandate over former Ottoman Syria, including the future Lebanon. 1933 The New German chancellor Adolf Hitler quickly pulls Germany out of the League. GREENLAND ICELAND See panel △ Giving peace a chance This postcard in favor of Switzerland’s membership of the League of Nations in 1920 reveals a mood of optimism. 1932–34 The World Disarmament Conference meets in Geneva with representatives from 60 states but fails to make any progress. CANADA 1936 The League refuses to intervene in the Spanish Civil War despite pleas from the Republican government. U S A 1919 The US Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, thereby excluding the US from the League. 1 ARG ENT INA Active from 1920 until its eventual replacement by the United Nations in 1946, the League became largely irrelevant at the outbreak of World War II. MO ZAM BIQ UE RU 9 PE20–3 19 THE LEAGUE IN ACTION URUGUAY 1935 The League imposes weak sanctions on Italy after its invasion of Ethiopia but fails to prevent Italian seizure of the country. KEY Founder members and states Possessions of member states Subsequent members, with dates of membership Mandated territories Non-member states States and their possessions that withdrew or were expelled Borders, 1930 1 2 3 4 5 6 1910 1930 1950 1970 6 THE FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE 1930–1939 The League settled a number of disputes around the world, but it did not reduce the world’s stock of armaments. Moreover, it significantly failed to halt the military expansions in Germany, Italy, and Japan that eventually led to World War II; the hostile actions of these nations went unpunished throughout the 1930s. Ultimately, the League’s belief in collective security proved no match for states acting in their own national interests. TIMELINE 1990 MAD AGAS CAR SYRIA PALESTINE PERSIA 1923 Britain acquires a mandate over IRAQ former Ottoman Palestine, and creates Transjordan (later Jordan) as an MOROCCO TRANSJORDAN LIBYA HAITI EGYPT autonomous area. MEXICO 1937 ALGERIA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1931 P A C I F I C CUBA 1924 1930 A League GUATEMALA report leads to the ANGLO-EGYPTIAN 1920–36 O C E A N FRENCH WEST AFRICA HONDURAS 1920–36 SUDAN Liberian government EL SALVADOR outlawing slavery. NICARAGUA 1920–36 BRITISH 1924–37 UGANDA TOGO PANAMA RIA ETHIOPIA RUANDA- 1923–1937 GE I VENEZUELA N URUNDI FOUNDING OF THE LEAGUE 1919 LIBERIA 1920–38 COSTA RICA 1920–25 COLOMBIA Established under the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 FRENCH BELGIAN TOGO KENYA that ended World War I, the League of Nations ECUADOR 1926 Brazil CONGO 1934 met for the first time in Paris on January 10, 1920. BRITISH becomes the TANGANYIKA It consisted of a General Assembly of all member CAMEROONS first founding NYASALAND states, an Executive Council limited to the major member of the FRENCH ANGOLA powers, and a permanent secretariat. All were League to CAMEROONS BRAZIL based in Geneva, Switzerland. A Permanent Court NORTHERN leave. 1920–26 RHODESIA of International Justice, sitting in The Hague in the FRENCH BOLIVIA Netherlands, judged disputes referred to it. SOUTHERN EQUATORIAL AFRICA RHODESIA BECHUANALAND PARAGUAY 1920–35 SOUTH-WEST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA CHIL 1920– E 38 16 5 DRIVING DISARMAMENT 1926–1939 Under Article 8 of its founding covenant, the League aimed to reduce world armaments. In 1926 it set up a commission to prepare for a world conference on disarmament, which eventually met in Geneva in 1932 but effectively collapsed in 1933 when Hitler withdrew. Meanwhile the Kellogg– Briand Pact, an international treaty forged outside the League in 1928, sought but failed to outlaw conflict as an instrument of national policy. T H E L E A G U E O F N AT I O N S 1919–1990 After the defeat of Germany and Ottoman Turkey in World War I, their possessions in Africa, the Pacific, and the Middle East were ceded to the Allies under the authority of the League. Legal mandates allowed these lands to be administered on behalf of the League by member countries. The British mandate of Iraq became independent in 1932; the rest gained independence after World War II. 1939 The USSR is the first and only country expelled from the League, after its invasion of Finland. S U S THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS After the horrors of World War I, a group of countries conceived the idea of a League of Nations, the world’s first-ever international organization whose primary mission would be to maintain world peace and avoid another catastrophic global war. 1933 The League heavily criticizes Japan’s invasion of Manchuria; in response Japan leaves the League. R 1934–39 The name “League of Nations” was coined in 1914 by the British political scientist and pacifist Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, who drew up a draft diagram for its organization. As World War I progressed, leaders of the eventually victorious Allies began to clarify their war aims, agreeing that there should be some form of international organization created to prevent future wars. This idea was made explicit by American president Woodrow Wilson who, in January 1918, included in his Fourteen Points that were used to negotiate the end of the war a “league of nations to insure peace and justice.” The founding covenant of the League was written by the British diplomat Lord Robert Cecil and the South African statesman Jan Smuts, and was agreed during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. To achieve world peace, the covenant pledged the League’s support for disarmament, and it stated that its aim was to prevent wars through collective security, in which member states would respond collectively to any threats to world peace. The League would also extend international relations in the fields of finance, trade, and transportation, and help promote health and the struggle against drugs, prostitution, and slavery. Many of its lofty ambitions were thwarted, however, by member states acting in their own interests. N MONGOLIA –3 3 J A1P9 2 0 A TIBET C HINA 1919 Japan acquires a mandate over former German islands in Micronesia. INDIA ES PIN ILIP PH M SIA FRENCH INDOCHINA DUTCH EAST INDIES I N D O C IAN EA N 1920 Australia acquires a mandate over former German New Guinea and the island of Nauru. KEY RW Founder members and states NO Subsequent members, with dates of membership Territorial conflicts judged by the League of Nations 4 TERRITORIAL DISPUTES 1921–1935 LITHUANIA 1921 NETHERLANDS UNITED KINGDOM BELGIUM LUXEMBOURG 1920 IRELAND 1923 GERMANY 1926–33 CZECH SWITZERLAND FRANCE LATVIA 1921 EAST PRUSSIA POLAND O S LO V A K IA AUSTRIA HUNGARY 1920 1922–39 YU ROMANIA GO SL AV BULGARIA IA 1920 ALBANIA A LY PORTUGAL Territorial conflicts judged by the League of Nations Borders, 1930 ESTONIA 1921 DENMARK IT A key role of the League was to intervene in disputes between members. Many national boundaries remained to be settled after World War I, while new wars broke out in South America, Africa, and China. The League also had some success in tackling the opium trade and sexual slavery, and in helping refugees. States and their possessions that withdrew or were expelled FINLAND 1920 AY AUSTRA L IA EN THE MANDATE SYSTEM SWED 3 SPAIN 1920 GREECE TURKEY 1932 17 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 6 DIVIDED EUROPE SPAIN AND PORTUGAL Strikes and riots during the 1930s Other dictatorship Over 20 percent unemployment by 1932 Percentage decrease in industrial output from 1929 to 1932 Y A W R Communist regime O Right-wing activity Oslo N KEY Fascist regime 1931–1939 In Spain, the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, which had begun in 1923, was replaced in 1931 by a republic that failed to gain widespread support. A brutal civil war in 1936–1939 led to the victory of the proto-Fascist Nationalists under General Franco. Portugal emerged from its limited role in World War I with a weak republican government, but by 1932 it had embraced the conservative and authoritarian ideologies of Antonio de Salazar, who became prime minister with almost dictatorial powers. The interwar years saw the failure of democracy in most European nations as both Fascism and Communism gained ground. Strong, often dictatorial leaders took control of their countries. TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 IRELAND 1935 S e a Dublin 1940 Liverpool Rh A T L A N T I C Lille O C E A N BELGIUM Frankfurt Angers SAAR Orléans R A N C Geneva ERLAND SWITZ Bilbao AUSTRIA Milan Toulouse Venice Avignon Montpellier ANDORRA POLAND AND THE BALTICS assassinated in Marseille by a Croat Nationalist. 1926–1939 Caught between the new Communist state of the USSR and, after 1933, the rising power of Hitler’s Germany, Poland and the Baltic states struggled to assert their independence and keep their democracies alive. With no democratic heritage, all eventually became dictatorships. To the north in Finland, a Nationalist movement, Lapua, attempted a coup d’état in 1932. Poland and Baltic states 2 ca a M Se Barcelona N tic S e a n e a n a r r t e 1934 King i Alexander of e d Yugoslavia is Y Toledo Pisa Marseille Lérida L Madrid Genoa A UG Pamplona Tarazona RT 1933 Engelbert Dollfuss establishes an authoritarian government. E 73% 3 60% LUXEMBOURG Paris F S P A I b GERMANY Brussels Le Havre 1934 Riots and a general strike break out after accusations of government corruption. 1931 A republic is set up in Spain, but is beset by strikes, demonstrations, and uprisings. El Bremen i ia Adr AL London T Lisbon Hamburg NETHERLANDS I ▽ The March on Rome With the threat of civil war looming in Italy, Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Blackshirts marched on Rome October 28–29, 1922, leading to Mussolini’s appointment as prime minister. Cambridge Oxford rsi 1929–1939 Germany emerged from World War I defeated, divided, and demoralized. Its democratic Weimar government lacked popular support, and was debilitated by the financial crisis after 1929. The far-right Nazi party under Adolf Hitler pledged national renewal, taking power in January 1933 and establishing a one-party totalitarian state. The newly formed Austria was similarly weak, becoming an authoritarian state in 1933 before Nazi Germany annexed it in March 1938. Birmingham 1932 Oswald Mosley sets up the Fascist Blackshirt movement. e GERMANY AND AUSTRIA Copenhagen ne The New York Stock Exchange crash (see box, right) led to an international financial crisis that crippled the economies of Europe. International economic collaboration broke down and was replaced by insular economic nationalism. This weakened some already fragile democratic governments, with many countries establishing Fascist or other dictatorial governments. Nationalist groups also gained popularity in democracies such as the Netherlands and France. 4 1933 The Nazis come to power and crush all opposition. Manchester 1929–1939 61% Co 5 ECONOMIC DOWNTURN DENMARK 89% Rome ia 1930 KINGDOM in 1925 N o r t h rd 1920 UNITED Sa 1915 Edinburgh Belfast PO 18 1922 Mussolini leads the March on Rome. ITALY AND THE RISE OF FASCISM Naples 1922–1939 Although Italy had been on the winning side of World War I, it emerged from the war dissatisfied with its meager territorial gains at Austria’s expense in the north. This dissatisfaction, along with a fear of the revolutionary left, encouraged the growth of Fascism in the country. In October 1922 Benito Mussolini was made prime minister, establishing one-party rule and an authoritarian state that pursued an aggressive foreign policy designed to increase Italy’s power. S W E D E N E U R O P E O F T H E D I C TAT O R S F L N I A N D Helsinki Tallinn Stockholm ti c Se a ESTONIA B a Riga Danzig free port Wilno After the end of the war in 1918 and the subsequent signing of various peace treaties, most European states—excepting the newly formed Communist state in Russia—were democracies. However, one by one these democratic regimes gave way to dictatorships. Italy was the first of these, when Mussolini took power in 1922, followed by Spain in 1923 and Poland in 1926. Democracy collapsed in the Baltic states between 1926 and 1934, while the Balkan states become dictatorships after 1929. The rise of Nazi rule after 1933 in Germany, and later in Austria, completed the picture. 1926 Dissatisfied with Poland’s unstable democratic governments, former military commander Josef Pilsudski comes out of retirement to stage a coup. 63% Krakow 1919 Admiral Horthy forms an authoritarian regency in the new kingdom. CZEC HOS LO VA KI A Belgrade U S S 1929 King Alexander appoints a royal dictatorship to end the fighting between Serbs and Croats. Bucharest G O S L A B U LG A R I A A V I Sofia 1938 King Carol II takes dictatorial powers. c Bla k Sea 1 G RE E C E Athens HUNGARY AND THE BALKANS K UR EY 1919–1939 Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires at the end of World War I, new states emerged in the Balkans. Their governments were typically weak and were replaced by royal or military dictatorships; the growing influence of Nazi Germany led to the formation of far-right groups in the region. In Hungary, resentment over the loss of territory under the 1920 Treaty of Trianon led to closer ties with Nazi Germany. Balkan countries This transformation was exacerbated by the economic crisis that swept across Europe after 1929. Rising unemployment and economic collapse undermined democratic governments and gave rise to right-wing and Fascist groups. These were often militaristic in structure and populist in appeal, providing their members with power that had not been available to them under democracy. By 1939, democratic rule existed only in Scandinavia, Britain and Ireland, France, the Benelux nations, and Switzerland. The rest of Europe was under dictatorial rule. THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1936 King Boris III establishes a royal dictatorship. T ALBANIA 1936 A right-wing dictatorship under General Metaxas takes power. R F R A N C I S C O F R A N C O , 19 3 8 D a n ube Tirana “The Spanish national will was never freely expressed through the ballot box.” RO M A N I A Budapest H U N G A RY U 1926 A coup d’état sets up an authoritarian government under Antanas Smetona. P O L A N D Warsaw Y The victors of World War I had been a coalition of democracies, but in the uncertain decades that followed, many European countries underwent major political upheaval. Economic problems only served to add to the instability of inter-war Europe. L I T H U A N I A EAST PRUSSIA Wagrowiec 1934 Acting head of state Konstantin Päts declares a state of emergency, claiming that the right-wing Vaps movement is planning a coup. 1934 Three-time prime minister Karlis Ulmanis establishes an authoritarian dictatorship. L A T V I A l EUROPE OF THE DICTATORS In October 1929, the long boom on the New York Stock Exchange came to a sudden end. American creditors began to call in foreign loans and the supply of international credit dried up. In response, the US government introduced tariffs in 1930 that restricted imports. Competitive protection by other countries followed, causing world trade to fall by almost two-thirds between 1929 and 1932. Prices and profits collapsed, output plummeted, and millions were left unemployed (right) and impoverished. 19 20 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 HITLER AND NAZI GERMANY Although Hitler’s attempted putsch (or coup) in 1923 failed, by 1930 the Nazi party had become a force to be reckoned with in Germany. The economic depression that followed the Wall Street crash of 1929 was crucial in winning them nationwide support. △ The Führer Adolf Hitler, in his uniform, poses for the camera. A picture of the Führer (leader) was a must in every German home. Defeat in World War I had left Germany poor, resentful, and polarized between the political extremes of left and right. Many Germans were looking for strong, decisive leadership, which mainstream parties had failed to provide. Adolf Hitler emerged as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP, known as the Nazi party) in the early 1920s, with great determination. As one commentator said, Hitler was “the living incarnation of the nation’s yearning.” The Nazi program Hitler’s oratory was direct, aggressive, and uncompromising, as was his program. He pledged a national revolution that would restore German strength and dignity. His promises included an end to mass unemployment, abrogating the Treaty of Versailles, stopping the crippling war reparations Germany was forced to pay, and rebuilding the armed forces. Germany was listening. In the 1932 federal elections, the Nazis won 230 seats in the German Reichstag (parliament), making them the most powerful party in the country. After months of back room negotiations, in January 1933 a reluctant President Hindenburg was finally cajoled into appointing Hitler Chancellor. In March, the so-called Enabling Act gave Hitler emergency dictatorial powers. Its passage effectively marked the end of German democracy. The Nazis dubbed their new regime the Third Reich, or Third Empire, reflecting their ambitions. JOSEPH GOEBBELS 1897–1945 Joseph Goebbels, a masterful orator, was one of Hitler’s closest colleagues. In 1926, Hitler appointed Goebbels Gauleiter (district leader) of Berlin, and in 1933 promoted him to Propaganda Minister, with control over German radio, press, and cultural institutions. His propaganda sold the Nazi vision of German superiority and territorial expansion to the public. HITLER AND NAZI GERMANY Addressing the rally The rally at Nuremberg, which was held annually from 1933 to 1938 and masterminded by the Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, was a highlight of the Nazi year. Here, at the 1936 rally, massed troops at the Zeppelinfeld stadium listen attentively to Hitler’s keynote speech. 21 22 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 CHINA IN TURMOIL China between the two world wars was a country embroiled in internal conflict: its disunited provinces were ruled over by rival warlords and threatened by a growing Communist insurgency, while its national territory later came under attack from imperialist army forces from Japan. The Chinese Revolution of 1911 began with a mutiny among troops in Wuchang in Hubei province, in central China. It rapidly led to the overthrow of the Manchu or Qing dynasty, whose autocratic rulers had controlled the country since 1644, and the formation of a republic in 1912. The first president of the republic, Yuan Shih-k’ai, tried to turn his office into a virtual dictatorship based on military force. However, on his death in 1916 China fragmented into a number of provincial military dictatorships run by local warlords who fought among themselves. Civil war raged throughout China until, under Chiang Kai-shek, China’s Nationalist Party, the Guomindang (GMD), was able to unite the east of the country by 1928. The GMD then slowly extended their control over the rest of the country by 1937. Two forces emerged to oppose the Nationalists: the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), fighting for a social and economic revolution, and the Japanese army, intent on establishing an empire in China. The Communists were largely crushed in the cities in 1927, but the Japanese were a more formidable foe, absorbing the region of Manchuria in 1931 and the northern province of Jehol in 1932, and setting up a puppet state across northern China in 1935. “We shall not lightly talk about sacrifice until we are driven to the last extreme which makes sacrifice inevitable.” △ Director of the masses Mao Zedong, leader of China’s Communists, addresses followers during the Sino-Japanese war. In 1945, at the conflict’s end, Mao commanded an army of over 1.2 million Chinese Communists. 1 THE NATIONALIST REVIVAL Student demonstrations in Beijing in May 1919 initiated a wave of nationalist feeling across the country, which gave birth to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 and a revived Guomindang (GMD) in 1924. The GMD cooperated with the CCP and began a campaign of unification against warlord forces that culminated in the Northern Expedition of 1926–1928, which was led by Chiang Kai-shek. After its successful conclusion, the Communists were purged from power. Juyan Wuwei Under direct control of the Nationalist government, 1928 Route of Northern Expedition Nationalist territory, 1929–1934 Pro-Nationalist forces Qinghai Lanzhou Nationalist territory, 1935–1937 2 JAPANESE INVASION OF MANCHURIA 1931 Responding to an act of provocation (which was staged by the Japanese army), Japanese forces invaded Manchuria on September 19, 1931, seizing the key city of Shenyang. They went on to take the whole of Manchuria, establishing the state of Manchukuo in 1932 with the former Chinese boy emperor Pu Yi Hsuan-t’ung as puppet emperor. The invasion and occupation of Manchuria marked the start of Japanese imperial expansion into northern and eastern China. C H I A N G K A I - S H E K , 19 3 5 CHIANG KAI-SHEK 1887–1975 Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was born in Fenghua, a district of the city of Ningbo, in Zhejiang province. The son of a merchant, and a supporter of the new Chinese republic, he built up the Republican army and became commandant of the military school at Whampoa in 1924. His connections enabled him to take over the leadership of the Nationalist Guomindang (GMD) party and become commander-in-chief of the army in 1926. Despite successes against the warlords, Chiang’s rule over China was never secure, as it was threatened by Communist insurgents and Japanese invasions. In 1949 he was defeated in the Chinese Civil War by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) under Mao Zedong and retreated to Taiwan. 1919–1937 Invaded by Japan, 1931 Luding Japanese invasion DISUNITED CHINA Republican China was initially ruled by a number of local warlords and was only united under Nationalist control in 1937. By then China faced Japanese armed incursions in the north and east of the country. TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 1910 1920 1930 1940 CHINA IN TURMOIL U ( 1919 Beijing students initiate the May 4th Movement in favor of national unity. 1935 The Japanese establish a puppet state centered on Beijing. N N C le n R C H U R I A H U K U O ) Lake Khanka 1932 The puppet state of Manchukuo, with its capital at Hsinking, is established by the Japanese in Manchuria. Guilin 1933 The Japanese occupy Jehol province. Hsinking L O lu Shenyang Jiaoli Yaoyang Sea of Japan (East Sea) Beijing River Jinan Linzi Yellow Sea H I N A 1927–1938 After the success of the Northern Expedition, Nanjing becomes the Nationalist capital of China. Xiapi Hua i Nanjing Wan Shanghai 1932 The Japanese attack Shanghai. Hankou Ch t s Ea Hangzhou Yiling Hefei gt ze Yufu n Ya J I A N G X I Chongqing Xingan Changsha Yudu i na Fuzhou S C Nanning Guangzhou Julu Wuqie Hainan Shantou Oct 1934 100,000 Communists and their dependants set out from near Yudu on the Long March. 1924 A Nationalist capital is established at Guangzhou in opposition to the rival warlord capital in Beijing. South China Sea I I F N T a iw a n X i Jia n g G O N G D N A G U 1934–1935 Route of the Long March 3 A N G X I G U THE LONG MARCH Locked in a civil war with Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists, China’s Communist armies were forced to retreat from their heartland in the south-eastern Jiangxi province. In October 1934, Communist leader Mao Zedong led around 100,000 men and their dependants on a march west and then north through hostile terrain to a new base in the mountains of northern Shaanxi province; around 8,000 survived, arriving in October 1935. 1926–1928 The Northern Expedition captures major eastern cities as it reunites the country. Nanchang Zunyi 4 ea S H A A N X I Luoling Lantian C E A Taiyuan Zhengzhou Xi’an R Gaocheng Anping Sanshui O Bo Hai Hebei J K low A Luolang Ye l A N 1931 The Japanese Army seizes the key city of Shenyang. P A LI Ya M O A A S J E H G ON Keru M M S C A E P A C O JAPANESE INCURSIONS 1932–1937 After its assimilation of Manchuria, Japan turned its attentions to eastern China. Again, its army staged a series of incidents to provide a cause for war. On January 28, 1932, the Japanese naval forces approached Shanghai and bombed the city. After some intense fighting, the Japanese withdrew in early March. Japanese forces then occupied the northern Jehol province in 1933, and in 1935 turned the five northern provinces around Beijing into a virtual puppet state. Japanese Empire, c. 1930 Invaded, 1933 Japanese sphere of influence by 1935 23 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 1 During the 1930s, Spain was highly polarized, with major divisions between the church and state, urban and rural communities, liberal and conservative values, and the rich and poor. At one end of the political spectrum was the right-wing National Front (Nationalists), supported by the Falange (a Spanish Fascist party), monarchists, and some Catholics. At the other end was the left-wing Popular Front (Republicans), consisting of Communists, socialists, liberals, and anarchists. The Republicans won the general election on February 16, 1936. Fearing a Communist revolution, the army officer and Nationalist leader General Francisco Franco launched a military uprising in Spanish Morocco and across south-western Spain. Pro-government groups fought against the Nationalist rebels, but Franco received significant help from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, both of which wanted to stop the spread of Communism in Europe. By November 1936, Franco’s troops had reached the outskirts of Madrid—a Republican stronghold. Unable to capture the capital, the Nationalists besieged the city for over two years. Although the Republicans continued to control eastern Spain and much of the south-east, Franco’s forces were more organized and gradually took over areas previously under Republican control. The Nationalist victory at the Battle of Teruel (December 1937– February 1938) was a turning point in the war, and at the Battle of the Ebro (July–November 1938) the Republican troops were almost entirely eliminated. By spring 1939 the conflict was over, and Franco’s government was accepted by most of Europe. “… wherever I am there will be no Communism.” F R A N C I S C O F R A N C O , Q U OT E D I N 19 3 8 SPAIN IN WORLD WAR II While Spain was a non-belligerent in World War II, it was not entirely neutral. Although Franco did not officially join the Axis alliance, he did support Germany by providing essential supplies and allowing thousands of Spaniards to volunteer in the Axis forces, albeit on condition that they did not fight the Western Allies. Spain and Germany came close to an alliance after the fall of France in June 1940, but Hitler considered Franco’s demands too high and the two could not broker a deal. As the war progressed, Hitler considered an invasion of Spain, prompting Franco to move his forces to the border with France. General Francisco Franco JULY 1936 On July 17, 1936, Nationalist forces based in Spanish Morocco launched a coup against the newly elected Republican government. Franco took command of the Army of Africa—a Moroccan-based group of professional soldiers—on July 19. From July 27, Franco’s army was flown from Morocco to Spain by German and Italian forces, and fighting soon spread through south-western Spain. THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR A prelude to World War II, the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) was a bitter struggle between supporters of the democratically elected government and an emerging military dictatorship. Several other countries lent their support to each side. THE WAR BEGINS A T L A N T I C 2 INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION O C E A N 1936 Although 27 countries signed a non-intervention pact in September 1936, the ideological nature of the war gave it an international dimension. The Nationalists were aided by soldiers and equipment supplied by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The Republicans were supported by the Communist government of Russia, and the government of Mexico, as well as by volunteers from International Brigades—left-wing fighters who came from all over the world to fight Fascism. German support Porto Soviet support Italian support Aug 22, 1936 Portugal allows German ships to dock at Lisbon and from there dispatch war supplies into Nationalist territory. Lisbon 3 ATROCITIES AGAINST CIVILIANS 1936–1939 Both sides committed atrocities against civilians during the war. The Republicans targeted anyone believed to be right wing, including teachers, lawyers, mayors, and landowners, and they ransacked many churches. Meanwhile, the Nationalists persuaded the Nazis and Italians to carry out attacks from the air, including raids on Guernica and Barcelona, which was bombed by Italian aircraft that flew from the Balearic Islands. Republican violence Nationalist violence ▽ Resisting the Nationalists The women’s militia of the left-wing Popular Front march in Madrid in July 1936. A number of women fought in the Republican forces. P O R T U G A L 24 T H E S PA N I S H C I V I L WA R Apr 26, 1937 Guernica is bombed by Italian and German aircraft. The aftermath is captured by photojournalists, and images of the devastation spread abroad. Gijón F Guernica Bilbao Summer 1936 The Spanish– Portuguese border is the point of entry for many supplies. BASQ León U O EC San Sebastián UN A N C E Mar 1937 Franco switches his focus to attacking the industrial areas of northern Spain, such as the Basque region, a Republican stronghold. Santander Oviedo R Y TR ANDORRA Burgos Nov 1–6, 1936 Republican leader General José Valeria reaches Madrid on November 1. He is followed by the German Luftwaffe 5 days later, and the Siege of Madrid begins. Jul 25–Nov 16, 1938 At the Battle of Ebro, the Republicans are all but wiped out as a fighting force. Valladolid Duero Jul 6–25, 1937 Brunete Aug 14, 1936 German planes bring Franco’s troops into southern Spain. They advance to Badajoz, where thousands of civilians are machine-gunned inside a bullring. Mérida T CA Madrid Ta gu Toledo Badajoz Jan 5–Feb 4, 1939 Valsequillo S P Majorca Albacete A Ibiza 4 Many men joining the International Brigade go to the main training base at Albacete. Alicante Cartagena Oct 1936–Apr 1939 The USSR sends support to the Republicans, including tanks and weapons, to the port of Cartagena. Granada Feb 3–8, 1937 Málaga Dec 1936 Fascist Italy sends supplies to Nationalist rebels, which reach Spain through Cádiz. Tangier n a n e a r r e t i M e d Palma I Almería Cádiz Menorca Valencia Lopera Aug 6, 1936 Franco arrives in Seville. May 6, 1937 Infighting among Republicans leads to prominent anarchists being murdered. Rioting breaks out. Feb 22, 1938 Nationalists retake the town of Teruel—a bitter blow for the Republicans. Castellón de la Plana N IA Barcelona Apr 15, 1939 Vinaròs Teruel Seville Huelva O Tarragona Mar 27, 1939 The Nationalists enter Madrid. On April 1, Franco announces the end of hostilities. s AL N Belchite Mar 8, 1937 Guadalajara Sep 27, 1936 Nationalists take the Republican stronghold of Toledo, 40 miles (65 km) from Madrid, boosting morale. Cáceres ro Saragossa Feb 6–27, 1937 Jarama Salamanca Córdoba Eb NATIONALISTS TRIUMPH MAY 1937–APRIL 1939 In May 1937, infighting divided the Republican forces based in Barcelona. The Republican army was weakened by Nationalist wins at the battles of Teruel and Ebro, and Franco’s army seized Barcelona on January 26, 1939. Further Nationalist victories in Catalonia and Vinaròs all but destroyed the Republican forces. The Nationalists marched into Madrid on March 27, 1939, and Franco declared an end to the war on April 1. Nationalist victory A NATION AT WAR S e a Franco’s Nationalist forces initially gained territory in Spanish Morocco and south-western Spain, and gradually captured predominantly conservative farming areas in the north by 1937. They seized Republican Catalonia by 1939, cutting off Barcelona from Madrid, and ensuring their victory. KEY Oct 1936–Apr 1939 Huelva and Cádiz are the main ports for German supplies to the Nationalists. S P A N I S H Jul 18, 1936 By the evening, the Nationalist army controls all of Spanish Morocco, and then invades Spain. Fighting soon spreads to Cádiz, Seville, and Málaga. O C C M O R O Nationalist land, Jul 1936 Nationalist gains, Feb 1939 Nationalist forces Nationalist gains, Oct 1937 Republican land, Feb 1939 Republican forces Nationalist gains, Jul 1938 Temporary independence border Major battles TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 25 26 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 THE SINOJAPANESE WAR The Japanese attacked China in July 1937, marking the start of an eight-year war. The fighting was brutal; there were more than seven million military casualties on both sides and 17–22 million Chinese civilians lost their lives. The hostilities that broke out in July 1937 were the culmination of a long-term Japanese aspiration to dominate China in order to gain access to raw materials, food, and labor. Having already captured Taiwan in 1895 (seen here in dark red), Manchuria in 1931, and Jehol province in 1933 (both seen in the right-hand pink area), Japan turned its attention to the rest of China. On July 7–9, 1937, the Japanese and Chinese exchanged fire over an incident involving a missing Japanese soldier at Wanping, 10 miles (16 km) south-west of Beijing. The Japanese opened fire on Marco Polo (Lugou) Bridge, a key access route to Beijing, and attacked Wanping. This skirmish developed into a major battle. Although a cease-fire was soon agreed, Japanese and Chinese forces continued to clash, leading to full-scale hostilities as the Japanese began to conquer northern China. Neither side officially declared war. Invasion and expansion Some Japanese forces then headed south; others landed on the east coast. In November they captured Shanghai after a three-month battle, and in December took Nanjing (both in the pink-tinted area on this map), where they perpetrated a major massacre. In 1938, they won a victory at Hankou against Chinese forces and Soviet volunteers led by Chiang Kai-shek. The four-month battle claimed around 1.2 million lives. These offensives were accompanied by the bombing of civilian targets, intended to destroy morale; Chongqing, for example, was bombed more than 200 times and had its center burned out. By 1941, Japan controlled much of eastern China and almost the entire coastline. Chinese resistance Despite these victories, the war turned into a stalemate. Chinese lines of communication stretched far into local territory, and Japan lacked the manpower to dominate the countryside. It was unable to defeat a major Communist guerrilla campaign in Shaanxi, nor could it repel two massive Nationalist and Communist counteroffensives, losing two major battles at Hankou and South Guangxi. ◁ Massacre at Nanjing The Imperial Japanese Army entered Nanjing in January 1938. Up to 300,000 civilians are estimated to have been killed. T H E S I N O - J A PA N E S E WA R Japanese empire map, c. 1939 The red areas of this map show Japan’s empire in 1930 including Korea and Taiwan; the right-hand pink area shows conquests of 1931–1933, including Manchuria. The pink tint shows gains in China by 1937, and the orange tint shows gains made in 1938–1939. 27 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 ITED K ING DO M △ Hitler in Austria, March 1938 Following the Anschluss, Hitler traveled in triumph through Austria to Vienna, where he addressed 200,000 jubilant German Austrians in the Heldenplatz (Heroes’ Square). 1 Although Italy was on the winning Allied side in World War I, it emerged from the conflict with high casualties, a crippled, indebted economy, and few territorial gains. This fueled great resentment at home, which was among the many factors that propelled Benito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party to power in 1922. Mussolini sought to bolster the nation’s standing by expanding Italy’s territories in the Mediterranean and in Africa in an attempt to build a second Roman Empire. The conquests of Ethiopia (1935) and Albania (1939) were successful parts of this process. Hitler also had imperial ambitions, believing that Germany required Lebensraum (living space) to survive. When he came to power in 1933, he intended to avenge the Treaty of Versailles and create a remilitarized, pan-German state in central Europe. As Germany began to rearm in defiance of Versailles, the Saarland and Rhineland returned to full German control in 1935–1936, Austria was united with Germany in 1938, and Czechoslovakia was occupied and divided in 1938–1939. In response to these expansionist policies, the European powers of Britain and France did little to defend Versailles, instead choosing to appease the dictators in the hope that this would keep the peace. However, the failure of appeasement by the spring of 1939 forced both countries to prepare for the inevitability of renewed war in Europe. ITALY’S LANDS IN EUROPE Italian territories in Europe, 1910 Dodecanese Islands, acquired 1912 2 S P A I N Gibraltar Temporary occupation Annexed cities M THE ITALIAN EMPIRE IN AFRICA O R O C CO 1911–1936 Italy had occupied Ottoman-run Libya in 1911 and four times expanded its borders at its neighbors’ expense between 1919 and 1935. An agreement with British-run Kenya ceded Jubaland to Italian Somaliland in 1925. In November 1935 Italian forces attacked the independent empire of Ethiopia, bombing villages, using gas against local troops, and poisoning water supplies. The League of Nations imposed weak sanctions, but the Italians quickly conquered the country, sending Emperor Haile Selassie into exile. B E N I TO M U S S O L I N I , S P E E C H M A D E I N U D I N E , 19 2 0 Italian possessions in Africa, 1910 Acquired 1911 Acquired 1919 ALLIED REARMAMENT 3 Acquired 1925–1926 Acquired 1934 Acquired 1935 GERMANY REGAINS LOST LANDS 1935–1936 Germany pledged to overthrow the Versailles peace settlement in Europe, beginning with a program of rearmament—announced in March 1935—that was forbidden by the treaty. In the same year the people of Saarland voted in a plebiscite to reunite with Germany. The next year, German armed forces reoccupied the demilitarized Rhineland. Germany before 1935 Saarland, acquired 1935 Rhineland, acquired 1936 A British Spitfire production line Albania, acquired 1939 Austrian territories, acquired 1919 “It is not programs that are wanting for the salvation of Italy but men and will power.” After World War I, Britain and France reduced their military capacities, but the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany in 1933 forced a rethink. After 1936 Britain began to produce a new generation of tanks and artillery pieces, new aircraft carriers and battleships, and to develop the Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane fighter aircraft. France built the defensive Maginot Line along its eastern border with Germany and modernized its air force, the biggest in the world at the time. 1910–1939 Italy had taken the Dodecanese Islands from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 and had gained some territory from Austria after World War I. In 1919– 1921 it occupied part of southern Turkey, acquired the Yugoslav port of Zadar, and eventually annexed the long-disputed port of Fiume in 1924. A squabble with Greece led to a brief Italian occupation of Corfu in 1923. In 1939 Italian troops annexed Albania. GAL In the years following World War I, the governments of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany both pursued expansionist policies aimed at enlarging their territories and overcoming the terms of the 1919 Versailles Treaty. At the time, they met with little opposition from other European nations. UN GERMANY AND ITALY EXPAND PORTU 28 WEST FRENCH AFRICA G E R M A N Y A N D I TA LY E X P A N D SWEDEN 1939 Danzig proclaims its union with Germany. N o r t h Vienna Budapest HUNGARY Fiume d L Y Corsica ri a Rome ti c SL AV IA S Naples Cor Sardinia GO 1924 Yugoslavia recognizes Italy’s claim to Fiume. e a ALBANIA Taranto Barcelona fu Balearic Islands YU Zadar TUN ISIA 1936–39 Italy briefly occupies the Balearic Islands. 1929 Mussolini reaches an agreement with the Papacy to end the church–state conflict that had endured since 1870. Sicily Malta 1923 Italian forces occupy Corfu. M Tripoli Benghazi Crete 1939 Long dependent on Italy, Albania is finally occupied by Italian troops; its king, Zog I, is driven into exile. Antalya Dodecanese Islands e d i t e r r a n e a n L I B Y A KUFRA TUR KE Y s Cities acquired by Germany 5 S A U D I A R A B I A ile E G Y P T Aswan e d AO OU IP a STR Port Sudan Suakin Asmara Makale R F Austria, acquired by Germany 1938 A ETHIOPIA K E N Y A BRITISH SOMALILAND ST Addis Ababa Dire Dawa EA 1935 Italian forces invade Ethiopia. Aden FRENCH SOMALILAND AN After the fall of the Hapsburg Empire in 1918, most of the German-speaking population in Austria wanted to unite with the German republic, but the Treaty of Versailles forbade Anschluss (or union) with Germany. In 1934 the Austrian Nazi Party murdered Austrian chancellor Dollfuss in an attempt to seize power; later they continued to press for Anschluss. In March 1938 Hitler forced the resignation of the Austrian chancellor Schuschnigg; he was replaced by an Austrian Nazi who invited German troops to occupy the country. Assab LI Gondar ANSCHLUSS MARCH 1938 Territory acquired by Hungary, 1938–39 ERITREA Massawa Khartoum ITA 4 Territory acquired by Germany, 1939 D ANGLO-EGYPT IAN SUDAN Newly created Slovakia, 1939 AN 1935 France cedes the Aouzou Strip in northern Chad to Italian Libya in the hope of ending other territorial claims by Mussolini. Sudetenland, acquired by Germany 1938 IL 1922–34 Senussi rebels in Libya fight Italian control. 1938–1939 e UZ S A L G E R I A MUNICH AGREEMENT After absorbing Austria, Hitler turned his attentions to Czechoslovakia via the Sudetenland, its Germanspeaking border region. His plan to use force to crush the Czech state was thwarted by a four-power meeting in Munich in September 1938 (with Italy, France, and Britain), which forced the Czechs to cede the border regions to Germany, with other lands going to Poland and Hungary. The following March, German troops occupied the Czech lands, turning the eastern province of Slovakia into a Nazi client state. R Al Jawf 1939 In 1939 Adolf Hitler turned his attention eastward to former German cities on the Baltic coast. The future of the port of Memel had remained undecided after World War I, but the city was eventually occupied by Lithuania in 1924. In March 1939 Hitler forced Lithuania to cede the port back to Germany. To its west, the Free City of Danzig, administered by the League of Nations, had elected a Nazi senate in 1933. On September 1, 1939, its Nazi leader Albert Forster proclaimed its union with Germany. Suez N 1929 Italian governor of Cyrenaica, Bodoglio, sends those who resist his rule to concentration camps. ru HITLER FACES EAST Port Said Cairo CYRENAICA Cyp 6 S e a Alexandria TRIPOLITANIA 1940 R S S U 1919–21 Italy temporarily controls Southern Anatolia. GREECE Athens Tunis Algiers 1930 AL A Marseille A 1938 Slovak territory granted to Hungary. 1920 1910 IA IC M IT FR Trieste AN A SO SWITZERLAND ROM 1939 Independent Slovak Republic is set up on March 14. N AUSTRIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 L A N D Prague Teschen CZECH OSLOV AKIA Munich TIMELINE O CE P AN Warsaw G E R M A N Y Genoa 1938 Poland acquires Teschen and other Czech towns after the Munich agreement. Obbia AN DI N IN EA C O IA H ER LA Berlin IT AL ND S Hamburg LUXEMBOURG 1938 German troops occupy the Sudetenland border region. Memel ea S c lti EAST B a Danzig PRUSSIA DENMARK T NE BE LG IUM The ineffectiveness of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and the weaknesses of the League of Nations (see pp.16–17) allowed the Fascist dictatorships in Italy and Germany to expand their territories abroad. Italy enlarged its empire in Africa and the Balkans, while Germany absorbed Austria and western Czechoslovakia. LATVIA S e a The Hague EXPANSION IN EUROPE AND BEYOND 1925 Britain cedes predominantly Somali Jubaland to Italy. 29 30 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 Synagogue ablaze The main synagogue in Hanover, in northern Germany, was burned to the ground by Nazis on November 9, 1938. Jewish shops and dwellings in the city were also looted, and the furniture from homes was dragged into a square and burned. K R I S TA L L N A C H T KRISTALLNACHT In November 1938, a 17-year-old Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan, assassinated Ernst vom Rath, a diplomat working at the German Embassy in Paris. This triggered a Nazi pogrom that would have disastrous consequences for Jews throughout the Third Reich. In a matter of hours after vom Rath’s death on November 9, Nazis throughout Germany went on a violent rampage, attacking synagogues and Jewish businesses and homes. The event came to be called Kristallnacht (“Crystal Night”) for the shattered window glass that littered the streets. By the time the pogrom came to an end a day later, around 100 synagogues had been demolished and several hundred more severely damaged by fire. Many Jewish cemeteries had been desecrated, and at least 7,500 Jewish-owned shops had been sacked and looted. △ Mark of a Jew The pogrom had a lasting impact. By 1941, all Jews in Germany had to wear a yellow Star of David with the word Jude (Jew). Cause and aftermath Whether Hitler ever gave a specific order to launch the pogrom is uncertain. Goebbels, the Propaganda Minister, was quick to claim that the pogrom was an outburst of national anger in response to a cowardly attack. As well as inciting racial hatred through propaganda, the Nazis had institutionalized anti-semitism by teaching it in schools and introducing the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which stripped Jews of German citizenship. Following the death of vom Rath, the Jews were fined one billion Reichsmarks and told to repair all the damage the pogrom had caused. About 30,000 Jewish men were arrested, most of whom were transported to concentration camps. △ Anti-Jewish boycott A Berlin shop window is vandalized during Kristallnacht with a poster warning shoppers not to buy from Jews. A correspondent in Berlin for the Daily Telegraph reported, “racial hatred and hysteria seemed to have taken complete hold of otherwise decent people.” 31 T H E S L I D E T O W A R 191 8 – 19 3 9 A DIVIDED EUROPE 1936 1 1937 1938 THE AXIS POWERS 1939 1941 1940 1936–1940 On November 1, 1936, after the signing of a new set of protocols with Germany, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed the establishment of a Rome–Berlin “Axis.” Italy and Germany formalized their alliance in the Pact of Steel on May 22, 1939. Meanwhile, Germany and Japan had signed the Anti-Comintern Pact against the USSR on November 25, 1936, which Italy joined in 1937. The ties between Japan, Germany, and Italy, who came to be called the “Axis powers,” were strengthened by the Tripartite Pact of September 27, 1940. Glasgow Belfast Dublin UNITED KINGDOM European Axis powers, May 1939 London A T L A N T I C O C E A N 2 Nov 1938 Strikes take place in France amid tension between Communists and the far right. COPENHAGEN DECLARATION JULY 1938 In July 1938 Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, and the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a declaration in the Danish capital, Copenhagen, stating that they would remain neutral in any forthcoming European war. Most of these states, except Belgium, had been neutral or not yet independent in World War I, and wished to avoid being drawn into a future conflict. A N C E “In war, whichever side may call itself the victor, there are no winners, but all are losers.” Jan 26, 1939 General Franco’s Nationalist troops capture Barcelona. N E V I L L E C H A M B E R L A I N , B R I T I S H P R I M E M I N I S T E R , 19 3 8 Signatories of Copenhagen Declaration Born in Gori, Georgia, Josef Djugashvili was educated in a seminary but expelled for holding revolutionary views. Twice exiled by the Czarist government to Siberia, and from 1912 known as Stalin, or “Man of Steel,” he helped Lenin during the October Revolution of 1917, becoming Commissar for Nationalities in the Bolshevik government. In 1922 he became General Secretary of the Party and used this to build his own power base. By the late 1920s he had established a dictatorship that lasted until his death in 1953. R JOSEPH STALIN 1879–1953 T U G AL 3 THE END OF APPEASEMENT Paris F R The threat to world peace intensified through the 1930s as Germany and Italy expanded their imperial possessions in Europe, while to the east Japan entered into conflict with China (see pp.26–27). In response, the two major democracies in Europe—Britain and France—abandoned their policy of appeasing Hitler and Mussolini and moved to deterrence instead. On March 31, 1939, they made a guarantee to Poland that the western powers would come to its aid if the country was attacked, and extended similar assurances to Romania, Greece, and Turkey after the Italian annexation of Albania. With the emergence of the two rival power blocs, several European nations grouped together to proclaim their neutrality, but such diplomatic alliances were nothing next to the announcement in August 1939 that the two ideological foes of Europe—Nazi Germany and the Communist USSR—had agreed a mutual nonaggression pact. Its secret clauses redrew the map of central and Eastern Europe and absorbed previously independent states into their two spheres of influence. With the safeguard of nonaggression, Hitler’s Germany had now cleared the way for a successful invasion of Poland. 1 2 3 4 5 AND In a frenzy of diplomatic activity before the war, nations formed alliances, offered guarantees, and—if not wishing to fight—proclaimed neutrality. The final piece of the jigsaw—the Nazi–Soviet Nonaggression Pact— was the most surprising diplomatic coup of the century. TIMELINE IREL COUNTDOWN IN EUROPE The rise of Nazi Germany and its alliance with Italy divided Europe into two camps. One group of nations attempted to remain neutral, while the USSR reached a surprising understanding with Nazi Germany. PO 32 S P A I N Barcelona Madrid 1939 After Germany broke the Munich Agreement of September 1938 (see pp.28–29) and occupied western Czechoslovakia, Britain and France offered guarantees to Poland (March 1939), Romania and Greece (April 1939), and Turkey (May 1939) that they would defend them from attack. With these guarantees in place, the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 triggered a declaration of war against Germany. Allies and countries promised Allied assistance Apr 1, 1939 Franco declares victory in Madrid, ending the Spanish Civil War. COU NTDOWN IN EU ROPE Norwegian Sea FINLAND SWEDEN Leningrad NORWAY U Helsinki Tallinn Oslo Stockholm 1939 Denmark signs a ten-year nonaggression pact with Germany. North Jul 1938 A declaration of neutrality is signed by nine states in Copenhagen. DENMARK Copenhagen B NETHERLANDS BELGIUM LITHUANIA 1939 Originally assigned to Germany in the Nazi– Soviet Pact, Lithuania is later transferred to the Soviet sphere of influence. Memel Wilno EAST PRUSSIA Berlin POLAN D Krakow BOHEMIA & MORAVIA E 5 S S A Munich R Bratislava BI Vienna Zurich A Budapest HUNGARY AUSTRIA ROMANIA SWITZERLAND Milan Y IT G O S L A Victims of the Pact V I BULGARIA A 4 BA Rome NI A Nov 1, 1936 In a speech in Milan, Mussolini uses the term “Axis” to denote his alliance with Nazi Germany. M e d i t e r r a n e a n E Y K R T U Sofia AL Y GREECE Athens Palermo S e a 1939–1940 Belgrade A L Bucharest U THE EFFECTS OF THE PACT Secret clauses in the pact were to affect the fate of neighboring countries. Germany gained a free hand in western Poland and Lithuania, while the influence of the USSR was to prevail over eastern Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and the Romanian province of Bessarabia. A later secret agreement on September 28, 1939, extended German control further into eastern Poland while giving the USSR a free hand in Lithuania. All the secret clauses were implemented by summer 1940. A Mar 1938 Anschluss: Hitler annexes Austria. B SLOVAKIA Nuremberg △ Hitler and the bear In a critique of the pact between the USSR and Germany, this French satirical cartoon from 1939 depicts Hitler and the USSR—the “bear”—wrestling over a map of Europe. The pact was negotiated in secret and was met with shock across Europe when it was announced. 1939 Under the Nazi– Soviet Pact, Poland is to be split between Germany and the USSR and wiped off the map. Warsaw M A N Y R E G LUXEMBOURG Marseille R Aug 1939 Hitler issues ultimatum claiming sovereignty over Free City of Danzig. May 22, 1939 The Pact of Steel is signed in Berlin. Amsterdam Sea Danzig altic S Mar 22, 1939 Germany annexes the Baltic port of Memel from Lithuania. LATVIA Riga Sea S ESTONIA Apr 7, 1939 Italian forces invade Albania. THE NAZI–SOVIET NONAGGRESSION PACT AUGUST 23, 1939 On August 23, 1939, the German and Russian foreign secretaries Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov signed a nonaggression pact. The published terms included pledges to maintain neutrality if either country was at war. This marked a major change in policy: the USSR, let down by the Munich Agreement, was now willing to precipitate war between “the two imperialist camps”; and Germany wanted to avoid possible Soviet interference in its invasion of Poland. Signatories to the Nonaggression Pact 33 GERMANY TRIUMPHANT 1939–1941 AS THE AXIS ARMIES SWEPT ACROSS EUROPE AND PUSHED INTO THE USSR, THE BALKANS, AND AFRICA, THE ALLIES FOUND THEMSELVES BATTLING FOR SURVIVAL ON ALL FRONTS. 36 G E R M A N Y T R I U M P H A N T 19 3 9 – 19 4 1 WAR IN EUROPE The triumph of German armies in the first phase of World War II made Adolf Hitler the master of continental Europe. Under the leadership of Winston Churchill, Britain successfully resisted a German aerial onslaught, but with no immediate prospect of more than mere survival. △ Fleeing civilians A Parisian family sets out in search of a safe haven as German forces approach the French capital in 1940. Two-thirds of the city’s population fled in panic to the countryside. mistaken. In British cities, children were evacuated When World War II broke out in days before the declaration of war, likewise the residents September 1939, there were no in France’s frontier zone. By the time war broke out, cheering crowds as there had been in World War I. The British and French governments reluctantly Germany’s economy had already been geared to war for over a year, and Britain and France had begun to rearm. entered a conflict that they had not wanted, and took no Indeed, armaments programs and military conscription action to aid the Poles, on whose behalf they had declared ended the mass unemployment of the interwar period. war on Germany. Quickly defeated and divided between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Poland was subjected to the mass killing of its educated elite, and its Jews were Germany storms Europe driven into ghettos. Britain and France rejected a peace offer Some politicians, especially in France, would have preferred from Hitler after his victory in Poland, but had no desire for to fight the Soviet Union rather than Nazi Germany. They military action. The French army based toyed with plans for intervention in itself on the Maginot Line, the support of Finland after it was attacked fortifications that were supposed by the Soviets in the winter of 1939–1940. However, in spring 1940 this idea was to block a German invasion, while a abandoned as Germany took decisive British Expeditionary Force headed to northern France. However, little and widespread military action. First, actually happened, except at sea. The Hitler sent his armies northward into lack of military action led to this period Denmark and Norway. He then followed being dubbed the “phony war.” this by launching a lightning offensive in In Britain, preparations for France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Combining tanks and conflict had been under way long aircraft in fast-moving “Blitzkrieg” before war was officially declared. tactics, the Germans scored a series of Civil defense programs set up to cope astonishing victories. On the Western with air raids were implemented front, the French and British armies were immediately, and blackouts were △ Third Reich medal The Knight’s Cross, introduced by routed in six weeks, although many introduced in cities, although Hitler in 1939, was awarded to German soldiers escaped capture through the expectations that Germany would soldiers for acts of exceptional valor evacuation of Dunkirk in May–June 1940. undertake a swift aerial attack proved or skill in command. Sep 29, 1939 Germany and Soviet Union agree to partition Poland HITLER TRIUMPHANT Nazi Germany conquered most of northern Europe in three short campaigns: the first against Poland in September 1939, the second in Scandinavia beginning in April 1940, and the third in Western Europe in May–June 1940. However, after France surrendered, Hitler failed to pursue an invasion of Britain with equal energy and willpower. The Luftwaffe’s air attacks caused extensive damage but were inconclusive. Meanwhile the US was increasingly drawn into supporting the British war effort. Nov 29, 1939 Soviet war with Finland is triggered Apr 7, 1940 Forestalling Allied plans, Germany invades Denmark and Norway May 9, 1940 German offensive in Low Countries and France begins Jun 3, 1940 Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk is completed EUROPE US SEP Sep 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany NOV Oct 6, 1939 Hitler makes speech calling for peace, rejected by Britain and France JAN MAR MAY May 10, 1940 Churchill becomes prime minister Jun 10, 1940 Italy enters the war WA R I N E U RO P E ◁ Rallying support Issued soon after Winston Churchill became prime minister in May 1940, this British poster was intended to encourage national unity. ▽ Victory in Europe Seen here at a parade on his 50th birthday a few months before the war, Hitler seemed to be fulfilling his promises in the war’s early stages, as Poland and then France fell to the Nazis. France’s surrender a few weeks later was followed by the creation of the Vichy French government—a regime dedicated to collaboration with the Nazis. Hitler and his allies had control of almost all continental Europe. In Britain, the recently appointed prime minister, Winston Churchill, resolved to fight on. In summer 1940, Germany fought for control of the air over southern England while preparing for a seaborne invasion. Known as the Battle of Britain, the aerial conflict ended in stalemate, and Hitler’s invasion plans were abandoned. However, throughout the following fall and winter, Britain’s cities were battered by German bombers attacking at night in the “Blitz.” At sea, German U-boats took a heavy toll on merchant shipping. There was little that Britain could do at this stage to take the war to its enemy. Instead, Churchill opted for “economic warfare,” consisting of ineffectual attempts to bomb German cities from the air and stir up resistance in occupied Europe. “What the world did not deem possible, the German people have achieved …” A D O L F H I T L E R , S P E E C H , A P R I L 6 , 19 41 Jun 22, 1940 France signs armistice with Germany Jul 10, 1940 Battle of Britain begins; Vichy France established JUL SEP Jul 3, 1940 Royal Navy sinks French warships at Mers el-Kebir Sep 2, 1940 US pledges to transfer 50 destroyers to UK Nov 5, 1940 Reelection of Roosevelt for third term Sep 7, 1940 Mass German air raid on London marks start of Blitz NOV Sep 16, 1940 US introduces limited conscription Mar 11, 1941 Lend-Lease Act provides for supply of arms to Britain from US JAN Nov 14, 1940 Coventry destroyed by bombing MAR May 27, 1941 German battleship Bismarck sunk MAY AUG May 11, 1941 Blitz ends Aug 14, 1941 Atlantic Charter statement of British and US war aims 37 19 3 9 – 19 4 1 GERMANY TRIUMPHANT 2 GERMANY INVADES AUGUST 31–SEPTEMBER 15, 1939 On August 31, Hitler committed Germany’s forces to the invasion of Poland. Army Group North swept in from East Prussia, aiming to cut off the main Polish army west of the Vistula River. Army Group South drove toward Lodz and Krakow, before turning on Warsaw. The Polish armies were quickly driven back, with a noteworthy counteroffensive at the Battle of the Bzura at Kutno. Armies of German Army Group North German advances Sep 1–14, 1939 Armies of German Army Group South Polish retreats The Germans continued their advance into Poland, surrounding Warsaw by September 15. They also pressed further east, crossing the San River into territory that they had agreed would belong to the Soviets. Alarmed, on September 17 the Soviet Union invaded Poland on two fronts—the Western Belorussian and Western Ukrainian. The Polish government fled and, under attack from all sides, the remaining Polish forces gradually capitulated. Soviet fronts (army groups) Polish Bzura Pocket Polish frontline armies Sep 1, 1939 POLAND DIVIDED SEPTEMBER 28–OCTOBER 12, 1939 The German and Soviet foreign ministers, Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, met on September 28 to finalize the division of Poland. The Soviet Union took over half of the country, incorporating the territories into Soviet Ukraine and Belorussia. Germany annexed the western portion of its half. Some Poles who lived there were expelled and sent to the German zone of occupation, known as the General Government, in central Poland. Poland 1939 boundary Soviet advances Sep 17–27, 1939 Final Polish defensive positions B a l t i c Sep 3 German bombers sink the Polish destroyer Wicher, but most of the Polish navy escapes. 3 GERMANS ADVANCE, SOVIETS INVADE SEPTEMBER 15–28, 1939 Soviet–German line of demarcation German advances Sep 15–28, 1939 General Government Annexed by Germany Annexed by Soviet Union L I T H U A N I A S e a Kaunas Hel N a r ew Bydgoszcz Vis tul a Sep 27 Warsaw surrenders after being bombed for a whole day by the Germans. Modlin Kutno Y G E R M A N Warsaw Poznan Army Sep 19 German and Soviet forces meet at Brest-Litovsk. Brest-Litovsk P Lodz 8th Army Bialystok Modlin Army Poznan O L Kock A N D Oct 6 The last organized resistance by the Polish army ends at Kock. Wlodawa Lodz Army R G R E A T E R 3rd Army Pomeranian Army Belorussian Front Narew Group S Minsk Sep 9–19 The Battle of the Bzura ends in Polish defeat; 170,000 are taken prisoner. 4th Army Sep 18 Wilno falls to the Red Army. S T E A S Danzig Frontier Guard A S I U S P R U Gdynia Wilno Sep 28 Ten Polish divisions, besieged in Modlin fortress since September 10, finally surrender. Königsberg Radom Lublin Gleiwitz Aug 1939 Polish armies are arranged along Poland’s western border. n Krakow Bu Krakow Army Sa 10th Army Sandomierz NY 1 Lwow Przemysl 14th Army Ca SLOVAKIA Carpathian Army rp at Sep 1–17 Slovakia, a client state of Germany, joins the invasion. hi an M ou nt ai g Ukrainian Front ns POLAND UNDER ATTACK ◁ Boy in the ruins of Warsaw The Luftwaffe opened their attack on Poland with the bombing of Warsaw on September 1, 1939. By the end of the war, 85 percent of the city was destroyed. Poland was unable to resist the German and Soviet armies that swiftly divided the country between them. G R E AT E R G E R M A 38 P O L A N D D E S T ROY E D POLAND DESTROYED Poland emerged from World War I as an independent state after more than 200 years of subjugation. However, it took just a few weeks in 1939 for Germany and the Soviet Union to crush Polish resistance, divide the country, and begin brutalizing its population. After Germany’s expansion into Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler determined to attack Poland to regain lost territory and create Lebensraum (“living space”) for his people, turning Poland into a German satellite state. Under the terms of the cynical pact that he had negotiated with the Soviet Union in 1939 (see pp.32–33), Poland was to be partitioned between the two powers; this enabled Germany to attack Poland without the fear of Soviet intervention. On September 1, German troops moved into the country. Although France and Britain declared war on Oct 1939–Jul 1941 Around 1 million Poles are expelled from the German zone; the region is resettled by Germans. Germany on September 3, they reneged on their promise to provide military aid to Poland, giving Hitler a free hand. Within a week, German “Blitzkrieg” tactics had squeezed Polish forces into the heart of Poland. When the Soviet army invaded from the east on September 17, Poland’s fate was sealed. With its forces trapped between two enemies, Poland capitulated on September 28. The country was split into three: one zone was annexed by Germany, one by Soviet Russia, and the third—the General Government—was occupied by the Germans. INVASION AND OPPRESSION Poland was destroyed in a matter of weeks from August 31 to October 12, 1939. The Poles were seen by their occupiers as an inferior people and suffered deeply under the oppressive regimes imposed upon them. TIMELINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 JUL 1939 4 a Se c ti B Kalinin U S S R LITHUANIA JUL SOVIET OPPRESSION JAN 1941 JUL JAN 1942 SEPTEMBER 1939–JUNE 1941 The Soviet regime swiftly rounded up hundreds of thousands of Poles deemed to be a threat or “anti-Soviet.” In April and May 1940, around 22,000 officers and members of the intelligentsia were executed by the NKVD (Soviet secret police) at Katyn. In total, the Soviets deported over 1 million Polish men, women, and children to labor camps. LATVIA al JAN 1940 Sites of large massacres Deportation of Poles, Oct 1939–Jun 1941 Soviet territory Polish Corridor PRUSSIA Kórnik Mosina Kostrzyn A To rk h a ng Książ Wielkopolski els k la Ob To S i b e Minsk Mazowiecki Lodz Śrem T o K az Radom Lublin 5 st TEC TO R AT E O F IA A ND MOR AV I A Krakow r ia a k h s t an First mass executions of Operation Tannenburg, Oct 20, 1939 HUNGARY 6 Nov 1939 184 professors from the Jagiellonian University in Krakow are sent to concentration camps. ROMANIA THE POLISH GHETTOS SEPTEMBER 1939–JUNE 1941 The Jews in German-occupied Poland were ghettoized— confined to small urban zones surrounded by walls and barbed wire, where many died of hunger and disease. The largest ghetto, Warsaw, was established on October 12, 1940. More than 350,000 Jews—a third of the city’s population—were confined in just 2.4 percent of the city’s total area. POLAND OCCUPIED Both Jews and ethnic Poles suffered under German and Soviet occupation, as mass executions, confinement in the ghettos, and deportation took a heavy toll. German territory Kharkov Kiev SL OV AKIA OPERATION TANNENBURG SEPTEMBER 1939– JANUARY 1940 In a sustained campaign of terror, Operation Tannenburg, the Germans attempted to destroy Poland’s elites—from the intelligentsia and nobility to priests and teachers—in the hope of leaving Poland incapable of challenging Germany. Tens of thousands of Poles were imprisoned or executed, often en masse and in public, by SS Einsatzgruppen units. Bedzin P RO HEM P O L A N D Minsk Warsaw Środa Wielkopolska BO Katyn EAST Kherson Largest ghettos 39 40 G E R M A N Y T R I U M P H A N T 19 3 9 – 19 4 1 Emergency measures Fearing mass air attacks, including the use of poison gas, once war had been declared, governments took measures to ensure that civil defense could be carried out in major cities. Here fire-fighters in gas masks carry out an exercise in Paris in 1939. T H E P H O N Y WA R THE PHONY WAR Although the Allies declared war against Germany on September 3, 1939, there was little fighting on land until spring 1940. This lull in hostilities became known as the “phony war.” The lack of fighting in western Europe during this time suited both sides: the Germans feared an Allied attack while they were engaged against Poland, and the French and British needed time to build up their forces. While preparations were underway and wartime emergency powers were imposed at home, military action was very limited. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was deployed to France on September 4, 1939, but took up defensive positions, and a French △ Safety precautions offensive against the Germans in the In this British government Saar on September 7 lasted only five propaganda poster, an air raid days. British bombers flew over Germany, warden warns a schoolboy that he should leave London. In total, but merely dropped propaganda leaflets 1.5 million schoolchildren and aimed at undermining German morale. mothers with babies were Hitler made a peace offer to Britain on evacuated from the city. October 6, 1939, but after Britain rejected it he ordered his generals to prepare for an invasion of France and Belgium. Initial plans were unsatisfactory, and a harsh winter meant that the attack was postponed 29 times. Instead, in April 1940, the Germans invaded Denmark and Norway, ending the phony war. △ Army in waiting The British Expeditionary Force was ordered into France on September 4, and within three weeks there were around 150,000 troops stationed there. Sent to the Franco-Belgian border, they had little to do for eight months but dig trenches and wait. 41 G E R M A N Y T R I U M P H A N T 19 3 9 – 19 4 1 BATTLE OF THE RIVER PLATE On the night of October 13–14, 1939, a German U-boat sank HMS Royal Oak at her berth in Scapa Flow, Britain’s main naval base. The audacious attack was a blow to British morale, but just two months later the Royal Navy had claimed a victory against the odds in the first major naval battle of the war. Spee eluded detection and raided successfully, sinking nine Allied merchantmen totaling 55,000 tons (50,000 metric tons). The British and French navies organized hunting groups in areas throughout the North and South Atlantic, and in the early hours of December 13, Graf Spee was spotted. In the ensuing Battle of the River Plate, the smaller Royal Navy cruisers were able to harry Graf Spee and inflict damage that forced her to take refuge in a neutral port for repairs. The subsequent scuttling of Graf Spee was a major setback for the German navy, greatly undermining the original strategy of using its surface fleet to blockade British trade. Scapa Flow C A N A D UK London Brest N AI Force L SP Me Gibraltar dit GREECE err anea Canary Islands A T L A N T I C Force F Y A AL S CE IT U ALGERIA LIBYA FRENC PA Port of Spain H WEST AF RIC I GOLD ER G COAST NI Takoradi Lagos Freetown BRITISH GUIANA C IC IF 2 A A Oct 7 Newton Beech sunk Force Y Force K B Sep 30 Clement sunk R A PE RU BO Z I L V IA Dec 2 Doric Star sunk Oct 7 Ashlea sunk Oct 17 Huntsman sunk LI N E A O C In August 1939, Graf Spee headed toward the South Atlantic. With a top speed of 28 knots, she was designed to outrun or outgun any pursuer. T YP Rio de Janeiro Dec 7 Streonshalh sunk Montevideo See panel Dec 13 Battle of the River Plate Force H I A RABI Altmark tanker I N D I A A ATLANTIC MISSION OCTOBER 1–DECEMBER 13, 1939 Graf Spee sank eight more British merchant ships on a mission that took her through the Atlantic and into the Indian Ocean and back. Although she needed repairs, Langsdorff opted to conduct one more attack—to intercept a convoy that he knew to be in the River Plate (Rio de la Plata) area. However, he had been anticipated by Henry Harwood, commander of Force G, who lay in wait with two light cruisers and a larger heavy cruiser, HMS Exeter. Oct 22 Trevanion sunk Dec 3 Tairoa sunk D U I C Force M&N Kingston THE ROUTE OF GRAF SPEE Allied merchant ship Clement sunk EG CUBA O n Sea SA X M E O C E A N GRAF SPEE SETS SAIL AUGUST 21–SEPTEMBER 30, 1939 Graf Spee departed Germany with the tanker Altmark on August 21, heading into the South Atlantic. However, it was not until September 30 that Graf Spee claimed her first victim—the 5,500-ton (5,000–metric ton) merchant steamer SS Clement—off Brazil. Three of the eight Allied raider-hunting groups in the Atlantic—Forces G, H, and K—were tasked with searching the vastness of the ocean for Graf Spee. N A FR Halifax Boston New York 1 Wilhelmshaven GREATER GERMANY IRELAND A SWE DEN At the outbreak of war, Germany’s naval strategy was to avoid direct combat between fleet units and instead use surface raiders and U-boats to sink Allied shipping wherever possible, severing Britain’s maritime lifelines. Weeks before hostilities began, German warships and supply vessels went into the North and South Atlantic, and most of the U-boat fleet took up station in the North Sea and Atlantic approaches. There they awaited authorization to attack. The flagship of the German navy (Kriegsmarine) was the Admiral Graf Spee, a fast, modern, heavily armed pocket battleship commanded by Hans Langsdorff. From late September to early December, Graf NO RW AY 42 SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Allied merchant ships sunk Nov 15 Graf Spee attacks the Africa Shell, diverting the Allied search effort from the Atlantic into the Indian Ocean. D Force G Dec 17 Graf Spee scuttled Dec 23–Jan 21 Graf Spee’s supply ship, Altmark, loiters undetected in the South Atlantic. I N C O N I A N E A B AT T L E O F T H E R I V E R P L AT E 6 5 GRAF SPEE SCUTTLED DECEMBER 13/14–19, 1939 4 GRAF SPEE WITHDRAWS 6:30 AM–7:30 AM DECEMBER 13, 1939 Graf Spee sheltered in the neutral port Montevideo and was permitted to stay until Decemb